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Vitamin D and Covid-19

Blog post written by NH Hawes, author of Nature Cures: Recovery from Injury, Surgery and Infection

Many studies have concluded that low levels of the ‘sunshine vitamin’, vitamin D, in the body could play a part in reducing the immune system’s ability to fight off the Covid-19 virus. Vitamin D is manufactured in the skin from the sun’s rays and then stored in the liver for up to 60 days. It only takes 15 minutes of sunshine on the skin, a few days a week, to produce the vitamin D the body requires. Low levels will affect the immune system and can be caused by various factors, as follows:• Working or staying inside buildings during daylight hours.
• Covering the skin when going outside.
• Using sunscreen on all exposed skin before venturing outside.
• Being over the age of 60 as the body’s ability to manufacture and store vitamin D begins to deplete.
• Consuming too much alcohol.
• Having a compromised or damaged liver.
• Kidney disease.
• Gastrointestinal conditions such as Crohn’s, coeliac and non-coeliac gluten sensitivity or IBS.
• Skin disorders.
• Some medications.

Also, in the northern hemisphere of planet Earth, where most human beings reside, the sun’s rays are too weak to allow this process to take place from 1st October until 1st April every year. As the body’s stores of this vitamin become depleted, after 30-60 days, humans become prone to infections in the winter, especially viral and bacterial infections of the respiratory and sinus tracts. Therefore, there are far more outbreaks of viral colds, influenzas and pneumonia from November until April.

Vitamin D deficiency is on the rise because people have become aware of the risks of skin cancer caused by exposure to the sun’s harmful rays and either use sunscreens or cover up or avoid the sun completely. Sunscreens with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 8 or more appear to block vitamin D-producing UV rays, although, in practice, people do not apply sufficient amounts, cover all sun-exposed skin or reapply sunscreen regularly. Therefore, skin likely synthesises some vitamin D even when it is protected by sunscreen as typically applied.

Those with dark skin have less ability to produce vitamin D as over 90% of the sun’s rays cannot penetrate the skin This is also applicable to those who maintain a deep suntan over a period of time. This may explain why BAME people have been hardest hit by the Covid-19 virus.

Fifteen minutes of midday sunshine on bare skin can provide all the body needs. It is not the same as sunbathing; the skin simply needs to be exposed to sunlight a few days a week. UVB radiation does not penetrate glass, so exposure to sunshine indoors through a closed window does not produce vitamin D. Over-exposure to the sun’s rays can be dangerous for the skin but no exposure at all can be equally detrimental to our health. Complete cloud cover reduces UV energy by 50%; shade (including that produced by severe pollution) reduces it by 60%. This may also explain why the Covid-19 virus seemed to be especially prevalent and dangerous in polluted areas.

Vitamin D also protects against vascular disease via several different mechanisms, including reducing chronic inflammatory reactions that contribute to the pathology of the disease. Vitamin D also improves blood circulation throughout the body, which is essential for the heart to function properly. This helps reduce the risk of blood clots causing heart attacks, heart failure, strokes and other problems. Therefore, deficiency of vitamin D may also be the cause of these outcomes in the more serious Covid-19 cases.

Levels of vitamin D can be replenished marginally by consumption of vitamin D-rich foods such as:
o Krill oil
o Eel
o Maitake mushrooms
o Rainbow trout
o Cod liver oil
o Mackerel
o Salmon
o Halibut
o Tuna
o Sardines
o Chanterelle mushrooms
o Raw milk
o Egg yolk
o Caviar
o Hemp seeds
o Portabella mushrooms

However, often vitamin D levels drop too low and enough of these foods cannot be consumed to correct it. It is then that vitamin D supplements are required. It must be vitamin D3 that is consumed as the body cannot absorb vitamin D2. Plus, as it is a fat-soluble nutrient, it can only be absorbed into the body with some oil; consequently, vitamin D3 in oil capsules is the best way to ensure absorption.

The optimum level of vitamin D in the blood should be 50-70 ng/ml and up to 100 ng/ml to treat cancer and heart disease.

It is particularly important to have a blood test to determine vitamin D levels, especially if any of the following health issues are present:
• Abdominal pain
• Age-related macular degeneration
• Anorexia
• Autoimmune disease
• Bacterial infections
• Bone disorders
• Burning sensation in the mouth and throat
• Cancer
• Chronic fatigue
• Colds and coughs
• Confusion
• Constipation and diarrhoea
• Dehydration
• Dementia
• Depression
• Diabetes mellitus
• Dry eye syndrome
• Fibromyalgia
• Fungal infections
• Hypertension (high blood pressure)
• Influenza
• Irritable bowel syndrome • Insomnia
• Kidney disorders
• Liver disorders
• Loss of appetite
• Lower back pain
• Multiple sclerosis (MS)
• Muscle weakness or pain
• Nausea and vomiting
• Obesity
• Osteoarthritis
• Osteomalacia
• Parasite infections
• Peripheral neuropathy
• Polyuria (producing large amounts of diluted urine)
• Polydipsia (abnormally high thirst)
• Poor appetite or loss of appetite
• Rheumatoid arthritis
• Seizures – can be fatal
• Skin disorders (eczema and psoriasis)
• Systemic lupus erythematosus
• Tetanus
• Viral infections including Covid-19
• Visual problems
• Weakened immune system

In conclusion, the evidence that vitamin D may have an influence on the Covid-19 pandemic and should be tested for is as follows:
• Covid-19 became prevalent from November 2019 to April 2020, peaking in March 2019 when levels would be particularly low.
• Became more prevalent in polluted areas.
• Higher numbers of the BAME community had serious, and often fatal, outcomes.
• Persons over 60 were hardest hit.
• Persons with underlying health issues, often made worse by vitamin D deficiency, were hit harder.

If you feel you may have low levels of vitamin D, get a blood test done by your doctor as soon as possible. Also make sure that in November 2020 you get your levels checked again. This is important to help you fight off all viral infections, including colds and influenzas and especially the Covid-19 virus.

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Coronavirus – what you need to know


By Dr Sarah Myhill


It now seems inevitable that sooner or later we will all be exposed to coronavirus. This is because people can be carriers of this new virus without showing any symptoms. The strategy to slow and treat therefore is FIRST slow the rate at which the epidemic grows so that medical services are better able to cope. SECOND, reduce the loading dose of infection so that the viral numbers take longer to build up in the body and so not overwhelm the immune defences. THIRD, start to improve the body’s immune defences now before you are exposed to the virus. FOURTH, kill the virus directly with vitamin C (well known for its antimicrobial actions as it is used widely as a food preservative) and iodine (a disinfectant with long pedigree)

We know that coronavirus, like the flu virus, will kill some people. However, the vast majority will live – survival is determined by good immune defences. So:

  • Act NOW to improve the body’s immune defences (our standing army)
  • STOCK UP NOW with ascorbic acid 500 grams (at least), Lugol’s Iodine 15% (30 ml) and salt pipe

Before you show any signs or symptoms of illness

The severity of any infection partly depends on the loading dose of infection. Take action to keep this loading dose low so that it takes longer for the numbers of viral particles to build up in the body. This gives the immune system time to generate an effective immune response. At this stage do not suppress symptoms with medication since this inhibits inflammation – the very tool the immune system needs to fight infection.

Make sure you have this package in place:

What Why
Eat a low carbohydrate diet, ideally paleo-ketogenic High blood sugar encourages all infections (diabetics are especially susceptible to infection)
Take a good multivitamin/mineral supplement The immune system cannot function without raw materials
Vitamin D at least 5,000 iu, ideally 10,000iu daily We get more infections in winter because we are at our most deficient then
Vitamin C at least 5 grams daily This vitamin contact-kills all viruses – the key is the dose – you have to take heaps!

For more detail see– ‘Groundhog basic’ in my book The Infection Game: life is an arms race

If there is any hint of possible exposure, keep the infectious load down with:

  • Good hygiene – wash hands regularly. After washing rub iodine oil into your hands. You can make an iodine oil yourself using 10 parts of coconut oil to 1 part of Lugol’s iodine 15%. Iodine contact-kills all microbes, as I have said; it is the best disinfectant – ask any surgeon – this is what is used before surgical incision and to prevent post-operative wound infections. Yes, your hands will be stained slightly yellow but then you will know the iodine is there.
  • Sniff and inhale Lugol’s iodine 15% 2-3 times a day using a salt pipe. I suggest 2 drops in a salt pipe sniffed up into the nose and inhaled 15-20 times. Iodine is an effective topical disinfectant. It is also volatile so when inhaled kills or substantially reduces the numbers of all microbes threatening to enter the airways.
  • And/or …possibly use a face mask, drizzle 2-4 drops of Lugol’s iodine 15% on to the lining. for the same reasons as above. Re-apply Lugol’s three times a day.
  • And/or …smear iodine oil (made as above) round the nose and upper lip three times a day. Yes, it does stain the skin yellow temporarily but it slowly evaporates from the skin to generate a disinfectant cloud of iodine. This is good for kids who may not be able to use a salt pipe or tolerate a mask.

For much more detail see my book The Infection Game: life is an arms race

At the first sign of any infection (runny nose, sore throat, cough… you know!):

Strike early and strike hard with…

What Why
Take 10 grams of vitamin C (as ascorbic acid powder) in 500 ml of water every hour until you get diarrhoea – this is called ‘bowel tolerance’ This is of proven benefit – see references below.

You must take enough vitamin C – you can only fail by under-dosing. Vitamin C is completely safe and you can do no harm with it. As one of my comic patients put it ‘Premature crapping is preferable to premature croaking.’

Inhale Lugol’s iodine every two hours. I suggest 2 drops in a salt pipe sniffed up into the nose and inhaled – this may slightly stain the inside of your nose – but then you know the iodine is present. You will know the iodine is in the right place because you can smell it. Iodine is non-toxic to humans and all mammals (but if you are allergic to iodine then you should not use it)
Good nursing care – go to bed, wrap up warm and allow the body to run a fever Heat kills all microbes
Tell everyone that you are ill so that… …they can put in place all the above to reduce their loading dose and deal effectively with the virus
To quote the poet Dylan Thomas ‘Do not go gentle into that good night….’ Fight hard and stay alive!

For more detail, see ‘Groundhog acute’ in my book The Infection Game: life is an arms race

Advice for children

  • The principles are exactly the same.
  • And no-one has ever had serious side effects from vitamin C – perhaps use 5 grams every hour to bowel tolerance – or less depending on size.
  • Use vitamin D at proportionate body weight – use the 10,000 iu but perhaps every other day or every third day – the capsule can be chewed in the mouth.
  • Really important to use topical iodine oil over the nose and upper lip as this reduces the infectious load when inhaling and exhaling
  • What is interesting is that the Chinese babies whose mothers have had coronavirus have survived fine. I suspect this is about the immune system – with very high viral loads, the immune system over-reacts and it is this over-reaction that kills. It is called a cytokine storm. This is why the very sick patients are treated with anti-inflammatory drugs such as paracetamol, NSAIs and steroids (which you would think counterintuitive. There is a place for these drugs but not with mild symptoms). My guess is these Chinese babies do not have the immune reserves for a cytokine storm and so have survived well.

Very sick patients

Very sick patients will of course need hospital treatment with anti-inflammatories (for the cytokine storm), oxygen and respiratory support (for respiratory failure). The Chinese doctors are currently treating severe cases of covid-19 with additional intravenous vitamin C and seeing excellent results.

Support for the use of high doses of vitamin C

Follow the links below for more information about the science and clinical experience behind using high-dose vitamin C:

From 1943 through 1947, Dr Klenner reported successful treatment of 42 cases of viral pneumonia using therapeutic doses of vitamin C. This was administered by mouth, intravenously and intramuscularly. See:

And there is lots more good science and practical detail at Ascorbate Web

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Using Pro-Resolution Nutrition To Control the Coronavirus


This post originally appeared on It is written by Hammersmith Health Books author, Dr Barry Sears, author of The Mediterranean Zone

Viruses and bacteria were here long before we were and will definitely outlast us. So, when a new pathogen crosses from its natural animal reservoir to infect humans, what are you going to do? One choice is the ancient approach to quarantine infected individuals until the disease runs its course. That method was used in fighting the Black Death that started in 1348. Actually, the first appearance of the Black Death occurred about 800 years earlier when it was known as Justinian’s Plague and is estimated to have killed between 30 to 50 million in the Roman Empire. When it re-emerged in the fourteenth century it killed about half the population in Europe or approximately 75 million people. However, it didn’t immediately disappear as it continually reappeared in Europe until about 1660. The most effective interventions against the Black Death were draconian measures ranging from closing the borders, use of quarantines in both international trade (i.e., preventing ships from entering ports) and in domestic travel, and finally in keeping citizens confined to their towns to await their fate.

Newly emerging viruses can even be worse. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the first appearance of the influenza virus in 1918 infected about 1/3 of the world’s population, killed between 20 to 50 million worldwide including 675,000 in the U.S. between 1918 and 1920 (1). There were no vaccines, no antibiotics to treat secondary infections at this time, just quarantines and good personal hygiene.

Today, the modern way to treat pandemics of bacterial or viral infection is to simply surrender to the power of pathogens and use vaccines and antibiotics and modern medical care (i.e., ventilators, etc.) for the infected until the patient either survives or dies. According to the CDC, we are still not doing a good job in the U.S. as in the 2018-2019 flu season, it is estimated that more than 35 million Americans were infected (about 9 percent of the total population) with the flu, and 34,000 Americans died even though we had vaccines and antibiotics (2). While those numbers are definitely better than they were in 1920, but don’t bode well for future new viruses.

So, how are we handling the current coronavirus since we have no vaccine? The Chinese are using the ancient method of strict quarantines. It is highly unlikely that type of iron-fisted population control will work in the United States and Europe. And without a vaccine, the spread of this virus into an immunologically naïve population can rapidly expand. Is there another approach?

I believe the answer to that question is a definite yes. I call this the immuno-nutrition approach. The body has a powerful internal system to fight viral and bacterial infections. It’s a combination of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. The innate system is ancient and primitive as it reacts quickly to chemical structures. It works as our first responder to any type of microbial invasion. The adaptive immune system is more sophisticated in that it uses immune cells that digest the microbial invader and hopefully remember its structure when it might return. The adaptive immune system is slow to response (especially to a new biological invader) because it needs the innate immune system to prime it. However, unlike the adaptive immune system, the innate immune system is under strong dietary control and that’s where immuno-nutrition comes into play.

Immuno-nutrition is not simple advice to eat a healthy diet, but requires following a highly defined nutritional program to optimize the innate immune system to make the adaptive immune system more responsive to all microbial invaders. The key feature is your ability to optimize the Resolution Response™. The Resolution Response is your body’s internal healing response. It is composed of three distinct dietary interventions to reduce, resolve, and repair the damage caused by an injury including those caused by microbial (i.e., viral and bacterial) infections such as the coronavirus (3)

Without going into great detail in this blog, any injury causes an initial inflammatory response to alert your immune system that you are under attack. The more inflammation you have in your body, the less likely you can optimally activate your immune system to respond to this microbial challenge. This is why your first goal is to reduce excess inflammation in the body, not by taking an anti-inflammatory drugs (which are also anti-resolution drugs that inhibit the next step of the Resolution Response), but by following an anti-inflammatory diet such as the Zone diet (4-6). That is only the first step. Next you have to resolve the inflammation induced by the microbe by increasing the production of a group of hormones known as resolvins (7,8). This can only be done by consuming high levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet to maintain a low AA/EPA ratio in the blood. What is the right dose of omega-3 fatty acids? Your blood will tell you. If your AA/EPA ratio is between 1.5 and 3, then you are taking enough (3). Most Americans will require at least 5 grams of EPA and DHA per day to reach that ideal AA/EPA range since the average AA/EPA ratio for most Americans is about 20. Finally, you have to optimize the innate immune system using high-dose polyphenols that are water-soluble so they get into the blood to activate the gene transcription factor known as AMPK. How many polyphenols? Enough to keep your levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) between 4.9 and 5.1 per cent. This will take about 1 gram of water-soluble polyphenols per day with delphinidins being the best choice (9).

Of course, the more closely you follow the Zone diet, the fewer water-soluble polyphenols or omega-3 fatty acids you will need to optimize your internal Resolution Response (3). Such water-soluble delphinidins that can activate AMPK are found in low levels in blueberries or in far higher concentrations in delphinidin extracts. Once AMPK is activated by these water-soluble polyphenols, then it begins to orchestrate your immune system to attack and neutralize the microbe. This is definitely a team approach. If any one of the three steps (reduce, resolve, and repair) is not working at optimal efficiency, your ability to control the outcome of the microbial infection (in this case the coronavirus) will be inhibited.

This could mean the difference of either having runny nose or being on a ventilator because the likelihood you will be exposed to the coronavirus is great due to globalization. The choice of the outcome of that coronavirus exposure is yours.

Sears B. The Resolution Zone. Zone Press. Palm City, FL (2019)
Sears B. The Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1995)
Bell SJ and Sears B. “The Zone diet: An anti-inflammatory, low glycemic-load diet.” Metabol Synd and Related Disord 2:24-38 (2004)
Hotamisligil GS. “Inflammation, metaflammation, and immunometabolic disorders.” Nature. 542: 177-185 (2017)
Serhan CN. “Pro-resolving lipid mediators are leads for resolution physiology.” Nature 510: 92-101 (2014)
Morita M et al. The lipid mediator protectin D1 inhibits influenza virus replication and improves severe influenza. Cell 153(1):112-125 (2013)
Jin X et al. “Delphinidin-3-glucoside protects human umbilical vein endothelial cells against oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced injury by autophagy upregulation via the AMPK/SIRT1 signaling pathway.” Mol Nutr Food Res 58: 1941-1951 (2014)